Screws come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. They also have varying thread patterns which are designed for use in different types of materials like wood, metal and concrete. These differences make it essential for the proper selection of screws to be used on a particular project. Screws are often much stronger than nails and can better resist the expansion and contraction of the materials they connect with over time. In addition, if the proper type of screw is used, it can help improve the longevity of the fastener and reduce the risk of the threads coming loose.
Choosing the right screw size depends on a number of factors including the material that the screw is going to be used in, its weight and whether it will need to be driven into wood, metal or plastic. The length of the screw is also important as it needs to be long enough that it can penetrate through the material and reach its intended destination. However, the screw should not be too long that it protrudes through the surface and becomes an eye hazard.
One of the most common ways to determine the correct screw size is by using a thread gauge. A thread gauge consists of strips of metal that have various sizes of threads cut into them. By systematically working your way through the different thread gauges, you can measure the number of threads per inch, or TPI, on the screw’s shaft and then use that information to find the proper screw size.
Screw sizes are typically designated by a three-digit number followed by a decimal or fraction. The first number, which is called the screw gauge, refers to the diameter of the screw’s shaft and may be expressed in either fraction or decimal form. A screw with a greater diameter will be labeled with a higher gauge number, while a screw with a smaller diameter will be labeled with a lower gauge number. The second number, which is referred to as the thread pitch, refers to the distance between the individual threads on the screw’s shaft. The screw thread pitch is usually expressed in terms of decimal inches, or metric millimeters (MPI).
Some screw charts will also include the tolerance class and a symbol indicating if the screw is left-handed. The tolerance class indicates the type of holes or nuts that the screw is designed to fit into and ranges from class 1 to class 5. Screws with a tolerance class of 1 have looser threads while those with a tolerance class of 5 have tighter threads.
A few other important things to look for in a screw chart are the number of turns required to fully insert the screw into the material, and the head style that is recommended for the application. Typical screw heads include square, torque and Phillips styles. Some screws also have a countersunk head, which is flat on top and rounded on the bottom. metric to standard